The 75-year-old said he isn't experiencing any symptoms and is in isolation at his home.
"As part of our routine COVID-19 health and safety protocols, I, along with my team and staff, are tested for COVID-19 multiple times each week," Boeheim wrote. "Following our most recent testing, I was informed that I had tested positive for COVID-19."
Syracuse's men's basketball team paused all activities shortly after Boeheim's announcement as one other unidentified member also contracted the virus.
"Our top priority is the health and well-being of our student-athletes, coach Boeheim, and all members of the basketball program," Syracuse director of athletics John Wildhack said in a statement. "Per our COVID safety protocols, following coach's positive test we conducted an additional round of testing for all members of the basketball program. From that testing we learned that one other member of the program has tested positive."
Boeheim holds a 1065-399 record over 44 years as the Orange's bench boss, though 101 of those wins have been vacated due to an athletics scandal involving the school's men's basketball and football programs.
He guided Syracuse to its only national championship in 2003 and was inducted into the Naismith Hall of Fame two years later.
Boeheim is the second prominent college basketball head coach to have tested positive for the virus. Longtime Michigan State bench boss Tom Izzo announced his positive COVID-19 test result less than a week ago and is currently undergoing a 10-day isolation period.